## Overview

You can create Beamer (LaTeX/PDF) presentations using the `beamer` format. Beamer presentations support core presentation features like incremental content and 2-column layouts, and also provide facilities for customizing column layout, specifying frame attributes, and using Beamer themes.

See the Beamer format reference for a complete list of all options available for Beamer output.

## Creating Slides

In markdown, slides are delineated using headings. For example, here is a simple slide show with two slides (each defined with a level 2 heading (`##`):

``````---
title: "Habits"
author: "John Doe"
format: beamer
---

## Getting up

- Turn off alarm
- Get out of bed

## Going to sleep

- Get in bed
- Count sheep``````

You can also divide slide shows into sections with title slides using a level 1 header (`#`). For example:

``````---
title: "Habits"
author: "John Doe"
format: beamer
---

# In the morning

## Getting up

- Turn off alarm
- Get out of bed

## Breakfast

- Eat eggs
- Drink coffee

# In the evening

## Dinner

- Eat spaghetti
- Drink wine

## Going to sleep

- Get in bed
- Count sheep``````

Finally, you can also delineate slides using horizontal rules (for example, if you have a slide without a title):

``````---
title: "Habits"
author: "John Doe"
format: beamer
---

- Turn off alarm
- Get out of bed

---

- Get in bed
- Count sheep``````

The examples above all use level 2 headings for slides and level 1 headings for sections/title slides. You can customize this using the `slide-level` option (See the Pandoc documentation on structuring the slide show for additional details.

## Incremental Lists

By default number and bullet lists within slides are displayed all at once. You can override this globally using the `incremental` option. For example:

``````title: "My Presentation"
format:
beamer:
incremental: true   ``````

You can also explicitly make any list incremental or non-incremental by surrounding it in a div with an explicit class that determines the mode. To make a list incremental do this:

``````::: {.incremental}

- Eat spaghetti
- Drink wine

:::``````

To make a list non-incremental do this:

``````::: {.nonincremental}

- Eat spaghetti
- Drink wine

:::``````

You can also insert a pause within a slide (keeping the content after the pause hidden) by inserting three dots separated by spaces:

``````## Slide with a pause

content before the pause

. . .

content after the pause``````

## Multiple Columns

To put material in side by side columns, you can use a native div container with class `.columns`, containing two or more div containers with class `.column` and a `width` attribute:

``````:::: {.columns}

::: {.column width="40%"}
contents...
:::

::: {.column width="60%"}
contents...
:::

::::``````

The div containers with classes `columns` and `column` can optionally have an `align` attribute. The class `columns` can optionally have a `totalwidth` attribute or an `onlytextwidth` class.

``````:::: {.columns align=center totalwidth=8em}

::: {.column width="40%"}
contents...
:::

::: {.column width="60%" align=bottom}
contents...
:::

:::: ``````

The `align` attributes on `columns` and `column` can be used with the values `top`, `top-baseline`, `center` and `bottom` to vertically align the columns. It defaults to `top` in `columns`.

The `totalwidth` attribute limits the width of the columns to the given value.

``````::::  {.columns align=top .onlytextwidth}

::: {.column width="40%" align=center}
contents...
:::

::: {.column width="60%"}
contents...
:::

:::: ``````

The class `onlytextwidth` sets the `totalwidth` to `\textwidth`.

See Section 12.7 of the Beamer User’s Guide for more details.

## Beamer Options

These variables change the appearance of PDF slides using `beamer`.

`aspectratio`

slide aspect ratio (`43` for 4:3 [default], `169` for 16:9, `1610` for 16:10, `149` for 14:9, `141` for 1.41:1, `54` for 5:4, `32` for 3:2)

`beamerarticle`

produce an article from Beamer slides

`beameroption`

add extra beamer option with `\setbeameroption{}`

`institute`

author affiliations: can be a list when there are multiple authors

`logo`

logo image for slides

`navigation`

controls navigation symbols (default is `empty` for no navigation symbols; other valid values are `frame`, `vertical`, and `horizontal`)

`section-titles`

enables “title pages” for new sections (default is true)

`theme`, `colortheme`, `fonttheme`, `innertheme`, `outertheme`

beamer themes

`themeoptions`

options for LaTeX beamer themes (a list).

`titlegraphic`

image for title slide

For example, here we use several of these options:

``````---
title: "Presentation"
format:
beamer:
aspectratio: 32
theme: AnnArbor
colortheme: lily
---``````

## Frame Attributes

Sometimes it is necessary to add the LaTeX `[fragile]` option to a frame in beamer (for example, when using the `minted` environment). This can be forced by adding the `fragile` class to the heading introducing the slide:

``# Fragile slide {.fragile}``

All of the other frame attributes described in Section 8.1 of the Beamer User’s Guide may also be used: `allowdisplaybreaks`, `allowframebreaks`, `b`, `c`, `t`, `environment`, `label`, `plain`, `shrink`, `standout`, `noframenumbering`.

## Background Images

To provide a common background image for all slides in a Beamer presentation, use the `background-image` format option. For example:

``````---
format:
beamer:
background-image: background.png
``````