Includes are a convenient way to re-use content across documents. Includes work for plain markdown content as well as for .qmd files with executable code cells (note however that the cells must all use the same engine – i.e. knitr or jupyter, but not both).

To include a file, add the {{< include >}} shortcode at the location in your document where you want it included.

{{< include _content.qmd >}}

Include shortcodes are equivalent to copying and pasting the text from the included file into the main file. This means that relative references (links, images, etc.) inside the included file resolve based on the directory of the main file not the included file.

It also means that if the included file has a metadata block, that block will take effect in all included files. In most cases, having metadata blocks in an included file will cause unexpected behavior.


Include shortcodes need to appear by themselves in a line, and they need to be surrounded by empty lines. This means that you cannot use an include shortcode inside markdown syntax (such as an item in a bulleted list).


A concrete example would be if you have several articles about a topic that share a common introduction. Here, we have an article titled “Revealjs Presentations” that wants to include some basic information on presentations not specific to Revealjs (we do that by including _basics.qmd). We also have some demo code stored as scripts that we want to include as non-executed examples (we do that by including _demo.R and inside source code blocks):

title: "Revealjs Presentations"

## Overview

Revealjs Presentations are a great way to
present your ideas to others!

{{< include _basics.qmd >}}

## Revealjs Options

More content here...

## Do it yourself with R

{{< include _demo.R >}}

Copy the R code above in your session.

## Do it yourself with Python

{{< include >}}

Copy the Python code above and run it.

Note that we use an underscore (_) prefix for the included files. You should always use an underscore prefix with included files so that they are automatically ignored (i.e. not treated as standalone files) by a quarto render of a project.


You can also include files with computational cells. For example, here we include a .qmd that does some data preprocessing that we want shared across multiple documents:

title: "My Document"

{{< include _data.qmd >}}

Use the data...

where the content would be


Load the `sp500` from [`great_tables`](

import great_tables as gt
from import sp500

A couple of important things to remember when using computational includes:

  1. All computations still share a single engine (e.g. knitr or jupyter)

  2. Computational includes work only in .qmd files (they don’t work in .ipynb notebook files)

Note that you can’t use the include shortcode within a computational code block itself - as the example above shows, the executable code block needs to be inside the included document.