## Overview

Cross-references make it easier for readers to navigate your document by providing numbered references and hyperlinks to various entities like figures and tables. Every cross-referenceable entity requires a label (unique identifier prefixed with type e.g. #fig-element) and caption (description). For example, this is a cross-referenceable figure:

![Elephant](elephant.png){#fig-elephant}

The presence of the caption (Elephant) and label (#fig-elephant) make this figure referenceable. This enables you to use the following syntax to refer to it elsewhere in the document:

See @fig-elephant for an illustration.

Here is what this would look like rendered to HTML:

Quarto enables you to create cross-references to figures, tables, equations, sections, code listings, theorems, proofs, and more. Cross references can also be applied to dynamic output from Knitr and Jupyter.

Note that cross reference identifiers must start with their type (e.g. fig- or tbl-). So the identifier #fig-elephant is valid for a cross-reference but the identifiers #elephant and #elephant-fig are not.

There are options available that control the text used for titles and references. For example, you could change “Figure 1” to read “Fig 1” or “fig. 1”. See the options documentation for details on how to customize the text used for crossrefs.

Note

Quarto’s syntax for cross-references is based on pandoc-crossref (which is in turn based on this discussion: https://github.com/jgm/pandoc/issues/813). There are however several differences (mostly related to handling computational output) to note:

1. Quarto uses the prefix #fig- rather than #fig: (which is more compatible with Jupyter notebook cell ids).
2. Quarto is able to reference raw HTML and LaTeX figures and tables (which are often produced by executable code blocks).
3. Quarto has support for referencing theorems and proofs (and related types).

## Figures

As described above, this is the markdown used to create a cross-referenceable figure and then refer to it:

![Elephant](elephant.png){#fig-elephant}

See @fig-elephant for an illustration.

Note again that cross-reference identifiers must start with their type (e.g. #fig-).

### Subfigures

You may want to create a figure composed of multiple subfigures. To do this, enclose the figures in a div (with its own label and caption) and give each subfigure its own label and (optionally) caption. You can then refer to either the entire figure in a reference or a single subfigure:

::: {#fig-elephants layout-ncol=2}

![Surus](surus.png){#fig-surus}

![Hanno](hanno.png){#fig-hanno}

Famous Elephants
:::

See @fig-elephants for examples. In particular, @fig-hanno.

Here is what this looks like when rendered as HTML:

Note that we also used the layout-ncol attribute to specify a two-column layout. See the article on Figures for more details on laying out panels of figures.

### Computations

Figures produced by Jupyter and Knitr can also be cross-referenced. To do this, add a label and fig-cap option at the top of the code block. For example:

{python}
#| label: fig-plot
#| fig-cap: "Plot"

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
plt.plot([1,23,2,4])
plt.show()


For example, see @fig-plot.

{r}
#| label: fig-plot
#| fig-cap: "Plot"

plot(cars)


For example, see @fig-plot.

You can also create multiple figures within a code cell and reference them as subfigures. To do this use fig-cap for the main caption, and fig-subcap to provide an array of subcaptions. For example:

{python}
#| label: fig-plots
#| fig-cap: "Plots"
#| fig-subcap:
#|   - "Plot 1"
#|   - "Plot 2"
#| layout-ncol: 2

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
plt.plot([1,23,2,4])
plt.show()

plt.plot([8,65,23,90])
plt.show()


See @fig-plots for examples. In particular, @fig-plots-2.

Note that subfigure reference labels are created automatically based on the main chunk label (e.g. @fig-plots-1, @fig-plots-2, etc.).

If you’d like subfigure captions that include only an identifier, e.g. “(a)”, and not a text caption, then specify fig-subcap: true rather than providing explicit subcaption text:

{python}
#| label: fig-plots
#| fig-cap: "Plots"
#| fig-subcap: true
#| layout-ncol: 2


## Tables

For tables produced by executable code cells, include a label with a tbl- prefix to make them cross-referenceable. For example:

{python}
#| label: tbl-planets
#| tbl-cap: Planets

from IPython.display import Markdown
from tabulate import tabulate
table = [["Sun",696000,1989100000],
["Earth",6371,5973.6],
["Moon",1737,73.5],
["Mars",3390,641.85]]
Markdown(tabulate(
table,
headers=["Planet","R (km)", "mass (x 10^29 kg)"]
))

Table 1: Planets
Planet R (km) mass (x 10^29 kg)
Sun 696000 1.9891e+09
Earth 6371 5973.6
Moon 1737 73.5
Mars 3390 641.85
Label Prefix

In order for a table to be cross-referenceable, its label must start with the tbl- prefix.

For markdown tables, add a caption below the table, then include a #tbl- label in braces at the end of the caption. For example:

| Col1 | Col2 | Col3 |
|------|------|------|
| A    | B    | C    |
| E    | F    | G    |
| A    | G    | G    |

: My Caption {#tbl-letters}

See @tbl-letters.

Which looks like this when rendered to HTML:

### Subtables

You may want to create a composition of several sub-tables. To do this, create a div with a main identifier, then apply sub-identifiers (and optional caption text) to the contained tables. For example:

::: {#tbl-panel layout-ncol=2}
| Col1 | Col2 | Col3 |
|------|------|------|
| A    | B    | C    |
| E    | F    | G    |
| A    | G    | G    |

: First Table {#tbl-first}

| Col1 | Col2 | Col3 |
|------|------|------|
| A    | B    | C    |
| E    | F    | G    |
| A    | G    | G    |

: Second Table {#tbl-second}

Main Caption
:::

See @tbl-panel for details, especially @tbl-second.

Which looks like this when rendered to HTML:

Note that the “Main Caption” for the table is provided as the last block within the containing div.

### Computations

You can also cross-reference tables created from code executed via computations. To do this, add the label and tbl-cap cell options. For example:

{r}
#| label: tbl-iris
#| tbl-cap: "Iris Data"

library(knitr)


You can also create multiple tables within a code cell and reference them as sutables. To do this, add a tbl-subcap option with an array of subcaptions. For example:

{r}
#| label: tbl-tables
#| tbl-cap: "Tables"
#| tbl-subcap:
#|   - "Cars"
#|   - "Pressure"
#| layout-ncol: 2

library(knitr)


If you’d like subtable captions that include only an identifier, e.g. “(a)”, and not a text caption, then specify tbl-subcap: true rather than providing explicit subcaption text:

{r}
#| label: tbl-tables
#| tbl-cap: "Tables"
#| tbl-subcap: true
#| layout-ncol: 2

library(knitr)


## Equations

Provide an #eq- label immediately after an equation to make it referenceable. For example:

Black-Scholes (@eq-black-scholes) is a mathematical model that seeks to explain the behavior of financial derivatives, most commonly options:

$$\frac{\partial \mathrm C}{ \partial \mathrm t } + \frac{1}{2}\sigma^{2} \mathrm S^{2} \frac{\partial^{2} \mathrm C}{\partial \mathrm C^2} + \mathrm r \mathrm S \frac{\partial \mathrm C}{\partial \mathrm S}\ = \mathrm r \mathrm C$$ {#eq-black-scholes}

Black-Scholes (Equation 1) is a mathematical model that seeks to explain the behavior of financial derivatives, most commonly options:

$\frac{\partial \mathrm C}{ \partial \mathrm t } + \frac{1}{2}\sigma^{2} \mathrm S^{2} \frac{\partial^{2} \mathrm C}{\partial \mathrm C^2} + \mathrm r \mathrm S \frac{\partial \mathrm C}{\partial \mathrm S}\ = \mathrm r \mathrm C \tag{1}$

Note that the equation number is included (via \qquad) in the right margin of the equation.

## Sections

To reference a section, add a #sec- identifier to any heading. For example:

## Introduction {#sec-introduction}

See @sec-introduction for additional context.

Note that when using section cross-references, you will also need to enable the number-sections option (so that section numbering is visible to readers). For example:

---
title: "My Document"
number-sections: true
---

## Code Listings

To create a reference-able code block, add a #lst- identifier along with a lst-cap attribute. For example:

{#lst-customers .sql lst-cap="Customers Query"}
SELECT * FROM Customers


Then we query the customers database (@lst-customers).

## Theorems and Proofs

Theorems are commonly used in articles and books in mathematics. To include a reference-able theorem, create a div with a #thm- label (or one of other theorem-type labels described below). You also need to specify a theorem name either via the first heading in the block. You can include any content you like within the div. For example:

::: {#thm-line}

## Line

The equation of any straight line, called a linear equation, can be written as:

$$y = mx + b$$
:::

See @thm-line.

For LaTeX output, the amsthm package is used for typesetting theorems. For other formats an appropriate treatment is used (the above is an example of HTML output).

There are a number of theorem variations supported, each with their own label prefix:

Label Prefix Printed Name LaTeX Environment
#thm- Theorem theorem
#lem- Lemma lemma
#cor- Corollary corollary
#prp- Proposition proposition
#cnj- Conjecture conjecture
#def- Definition definition
#exm- Example example
#exr- Exercise exercise

The proof, remark, and solution environments generally receive similar typesetting as theorems, however they are not numbered (and therefore cannot be cross-referenced). To create these environments just use them as the class name of a div:

::: {.solution}
The solution.
:::

As with theorems you can optionally include a heading as the first element of the div (or a name attribute) to give the environment a caption for typesetting (this typically appears in parentheses after the environment title).

For LaTeX output the amsthm package is used to typeset these environments. For other formats a similar treatment is used, but you can further customizing this using CSS.

## References

The examples above have all used the default syntax for inline references (e.g. @fig-elephant), which results in the reference text “Figure 1”, “Table 1”, etc.

You can customize the appearance of inline references by either changing the syntax of the inline reference or by setting options. Here are the various ways to compose a cross-reference and their resulting output:

Type Syntax Output
Default @fig-elephant Figure 1
Capitalized @Fig-elephant Figure 1
Custom Prefix [Fig @fig-elephant] Fig 1
No Prefix [-@fig-elephant] 1

Note that the capitalized syntax makes no difference for the default output, but would indeed capitalize the first letter if the default had been change via an option to use lower case (e.g. “fig.”).

You can also group cross references using the following syntax:

As illustrated in [@fig-elephant; @fig-panther; @fig-rabbit].

There are a number of options that can be used to further customize the treatment of cross-references. See the section below on References Options for additional details.

## Chapter Numbering

You can use the crossref: chapters option to indicate that top-level headings (H1) in your document correspond to chapters, and that cross-references should be sub-numbered by chapter. For example:

---
title: "My Document"
author: "Jane Doe"
number-sections: true
crossref:
chapters: true
---

# Introduction

![Elephant](elephant.png){#fig-elephant}

See @fig-elephant for an illustration.

## Lists

For LaTeX / PDF output, you can use the raw LaTeX commands \listoffigures, \listoftables and \listoflistings to produce listings of all figures, tables, etc. within a document. You can use the lof-title, lot-title, and lol-title crossref options to customize the title of the listing.

For example:

---
title: "My Document"
crossref:
lof-title: "List of Figures"
format: pdf
---

\listoffigures

Note that the default titles for the lists use the form displayed above (i.e. “List of…<Type>”).

## Options

There are a wide variety of options available for customizing caption labels and references. These options are all specified within the crossref key of document metadata.

Note that since LaTeX does its own formatting and layout of figures and tables, not all of these options will apply when rendering to PDF. Specifically, delimiter options like title-delim and numbering options like labels don’t work for PDF output. Additionally, formatting directives are not applied (e.g. italicizing the figure title) for LaTeX titles.

### Titles

You can specify the title prefix used for captions using *-title options. You can also specify the delimiter used between the prefix and the caption using the title-delim option. For example:

---
title: "My Document"
crossref:
fig-title: Fig     # (default is "Figure")
tbl-title: Tbl     # (default is "Table")
title-delim: —     # (default is ":")
---

### References

You can specify the prefix used for inline reference type using *-prefix options. You can also specify whether references should be hyper-linked using the ref-hyperlink option. For example:

---
title: "My Document"
crossref:
fig-prefix: figure   # (default is "Figure")
tbl-prefix: table    # (default is "Table")
ref-hyperlink: false # (default is true)
---

### Numbering

There are a variety of numbering schemes available for cross-references, including:

• arabic (1, 2, 3)

• roman (I, II, III, IV)

• roman i (i, ii, iii, iv)

• alpha x (start from letter ‘x’)

• alpha X (start from letter ‘X’)

You can specify the number scheme used for all types (other than sub-references) using the labels option. For sub-references (e.g. subfigures), you can specify the number scheme using the subref-labels option. For example:

---
title: "My Document"
crossref:
labels: alpha a        # (default is arabic)
subref-labels: roman i # (default is alpha a)
---

If you would like, you can specify the number scheme for a specific type using the *-labels options. For example:

---
title: "My Document"
crossref:
fig-labels: alpha a    # (default is arabic)
tbl-labels: alpha a    # (default is arabic)
subref-labels: roman i # (default is alpha a)
---

If both labels and a type specific label option is provided, the type specific option will override the labels option.