Code Cells: Jupyter

Jupyter is an open document format that supports computations in many languages including Python, R, and Julia. Learn more about using Jupyter with Quarto in the articles on Using Python and Using Julia.


Cell options affect the execution and output of executable code blocks. They are specified within comments at the top of a block. For example:

#| label: fig-polar
#| echo: false
#| fig-cap: "A line plot on a polar axis"



Unique label for code cell. Used when other code needs to refer to the cell (e.g. for cross references fig-samples or tbl-summary)


Classes to apply to cell container


Array of tags for notebook cell


Notebook cell identifier. Note that if there is no cell id then label will be used as the cell id if it is present. See for additional details on cell ids.

Code Output


Evaluate code cells (if false just echos the code into output).

  • true (default): evaluate code cell
  • false: don’t evaluate code cell
  • [...]: A list of positive or negative line numbers to selectively include or exclude lines (explicit inclusion/excusion of lines is available only when using the knitr engine)

Include cell source code in rendered output.

  • true (default in most formats): include source code in output
  • false (default in presentation formats like beamer, revealjs, and pptx): do not include source code in output
  • fenced: in addition to echoing, include the cell delimiter as part of the output.
  • [...]: A list of positive or negative line numbers to selectively include or exclude lines (explicit inclusion/excusion of lines is available only when using the knitr engine)

Collapse code into an HTML <details> tag so the user can display it on-demand.

  • true: collapse code
  • false (default): do not collapse code
  • show: use the <details> tag, but show the expanded code initially.

Summary text to use for code blocks collapsed using code-fold


Choose how to handle code overflow, when code lines are too wide for their container. One of:

  • scroll
  • wrap

Include line numbers in code block output (true or false).

For revealjs output only, you can also specify a string to highlight specific lines (and/or animate between sets of highlighted lines).

  • Sets of lines are denoted with commas:
    • 3,4,5
    • 1,10,12
  • Ranges can be denoted with dashes and combined with commas:
    • 1-3,5
    • 5-10,12,14
  • Finally, animation steps are separated by |:
    • 1-3|1-3,5 first shows 1-3, then 1-3,5
    • |5|5-10,12 first shows no numbering, then 5, then lines 5-10 and 12

Unique label for code listing (used in cross references)


Caption for code listing

Cell Output


Include the results of executing the code in the output. Possible values:

  • true: Include results.
  • false: Do not include results.
  • asis: Treat output as raw markdown with no enclosing containers.

Include warnings in rendered output.


Include errors in the output (note that this implies that errors executing code will not halt processing of the document).


Catch all for preventing any output (code or results) from being included in output.


Panel type for cell output (tabset, input, sidebar, fill, center)


Location of output relative to the code that generated it. The possible values are as follows:

  • default: Normal flow of the slide after the code
  • fragment: In a fragment (not visible until you advance)
  • slide: On a new slide after the curent one
  • column: In an adjacent column
  • column-fragment: In an adjacent column (not visible until you advance)

Note that this option is supported only for the revealjs format.



Figure caption


Figure subcaptions


Hyperlink target for the figure


Figure horizontal alignment (default, left, right, or center)


Alternative text to be used in the alt attribute of HTML images.


LaTeX environment for figure output


LaTeX figure position arrangement to be used in \begin{figure}[].

Computational figure output that is accompanied by the code that produced it is given a default value of fig-pos="H" (so that the code and figure are not inordinately separated).

If fig-pos is false, then we don’t use any figure position specifier, which is sometimes necessary with custom figure environments (such as sidewaysfigure).


A short caption (only used in LaTeX output). A short caption is inserted in \caption[], and usually displayed in the “List of Figures” of a PDF document.



Table caption


Table subcaptions


Apply explicit table column widths for markdown grid tables and pipe tables that are more than columns characters wide (72 by default).

Some formats (e.g. HTML) do an excellent job automatically sizing table columns and so don’t benefit much from column width specifications. Other formats (e.g. LaTeX) require table column sizes in order to correctly flow longer cell content (this is a major reason why tables > 72 columns wide are assigned explicit widths by Pandoc).

This can be specified as:

  • auto: Apply markdown table column widths except when there is a hyperlink in the table (which tends to throw off automatic calculation of column widths based on the markdown text width of cells). (auto is the default for HTML output formats)

  • true: Always apply markdown table widths (true is the default for all non-HTML formats)

  • false: Never apply markdown table widths.

  • An array of numbers (e.g. [40, 30, 30]): Array of explicit width percentages.


If none, do not process raw HTML table in cell output and leave it as-is

Panel Layout


2d-array of widths where the first dimension specifies columns and the second rows.

For example, to layout the first two output blocks side-by-side on the top with the third block spanning the full width below, use [[3,3], [1]].

Use negative values to create margin. For example, to create space between the output blocks in the top row of the previous example, use [[3,-1, 3], [1]].


Layout output blocks into columns


Layout output blocks into rows


Horizontal alignment for layout content (default, left, right, or center)


Vertical alignment for layout content (default, top, center, or bottom)

Page Columns


Page column for output


Page column for figure output


Page column for table output


Where to place figure and table captions (top, bottom, or margin)


Where to place figure captions (top, bottom, or margin)


Where to place table captions (top, bottom, or margin)